The USA will inevitably need to lead the effort to reconceptualize how to meet the challenge of maintaining order and furthering the cause of peace after the end of the Cold War. This cannot be done piecemeal; it will require wide and proactive consultation. The process must include the key players in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Just as the USA has had to turn to China in dealing with the nuclear threat in North Korea, Japan and China will be fundamental pillars of the new efforts at international peace-keeping. The European Union will have to decide if it can foster a common foreign policy. The powers need to establish guidelines, parameters and standards of collective behaviour. Whether the UN is the appropriate forum within which to do so remains to be seen. The informal process of consultation, the role of balancing power and the commitment to negotiated settlement of outstanding disputes are essential. There is also the need for sufficient military power to convince challenger to accept the common goals of the international community.