Peace-keeping involved armed troops and unarmed observers on the ground, whilst peace-making implies negotiation or mediation efforts at resolving the conflict/dispute using the governmental, political and diplomatic machineries. hence peace-keeping and peace-making are complementary.
The International Commission on Peace and Food promotes world peace by linking disarmament with practical programmes to double world food production, stimulate economic development of the world's poorest people, and deal with key environmental issues such as destruction of rain forests, overfishing, soil erosion, depletion of ground water resources and dangerous accumulation of toxic chemicals in soil, water and food; redirect financial and technical resources from military to civilian applications through proven and innovative development programmes adapted to the needs of different nations and different parts of the world.
The 1947 Japanese "Peace Constitution", states in its preamble: "We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in the National Diet, determined that we shall secure for ourselves and our posterity the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all nations and the blessings of liberty throughout this land, and resolved that never again shall we be visited with the horrors of war through the action of government, do proclaim that sovereign power resides with the people and do firmly establish this Constitution.
Article 9 of the same 1947 Constitution reads: "Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes."< "In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized."
Security and peace are achieved through development, not the use of weaponry, and increasingly they related to ensuring better conditions of life rather than simply the preservation or continuance of life. Social development is a prerequisite for a secure, stable and prosperous society and people's welfare must be a priority rather than a by-product of statistical economic growth. Today it is social disintegration and economic exclusion that represent the most dangerous threats to security and peace.