Misguided advice Biased advice Biased experts Unavailability of impartial expertise
In a survey in the UK in 1993 of people seeking advice on pensions, it was reported that 91% were wrongly advised, despite several attempts in 1992 by regulators intent on eliminating mis-selling of personal pensions. It has been argued that the Clinton administration was ill advised in seeking to constrain the emerging democracy of Russia into policies totally congruent with those of the USA, since this would tend to evoke a nationalist backlash. The advice accepted made an ideological argument rather than an empirical one, claiming that ending state intervention would produce a spontaneously generated market capitalism, with prosperity to follow.
Every person, including experts, have biases and to expect otherwise is naive. The issue is finding an expert with the desired bias.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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