Incorrect information may arise as a result of error or intentional distortion. Errors may occur from computer or other mechanical equipment that is insufficiently programmed or inaccurately used. They may occur as the result of insufficient research or lack of information. Incorrect information may be phrased in such a way that it gives a false impression. This may be deliberately misleading or unintentionally so, due to error or to being unrelated to its context. Intentionally false information may take the form of propaganda or indoctrination, false evidence, false confession, advertising abuse and other deceptions. The results may include confusion, especially if there is conflicting information, prejudice, conflict, alienation, ignorance, a sense of defeatism or apathy, unfair trial, imprisonment (political or for perjury and contempt of court). It may serve to maintain existing injustices, inequalities and exploitation and strengthen government control, dictatorship, monopoly, organized crime and corruption.
It is a naive and inexperienced spy who believes he has achieved something by procuring a confidential document from a foreign embassy. The document in itself is worthless. It may have been written by some junior person to ingratiate himself with a senior official, aping his supposed view. It may have resulted from internal intrigue, intended to provoke a reaction and lead to the adoption of views quite contrary to those advocated in the document.