Bribery in transportation Fraud in transportation Illegal trafficking across borders Criminal use of transport services Smuggling
Because of its highly competitive and lucrative nature, especially in the case of international transport between legal jurisdictions, the transport sector is vulnerable to a wide range of unethical practices. These include: abuse of safety standards (as in the case of ferry boats), improper maintenance (as in the case of aircraft, trucks and automobiles), use of personnel who are improperly qualified and/or working excessive hours (as in the case of pilots), price fixing (as with air passenger transport and cargo shipping conferences), diversion and/or relabelling of cargoes (as in sanction beating), smuggling (as in the case of arms, drugs and black market goods), transport of crew or passengers with improper travel documents (as in the case of illegal immigrants), avoidance of tax and other regulations (as with flags of convenience). In many such instances, and especially cargo handling, organized crime is a significant factor.
Iraqi Kurdish smugglers are an essential supply line of food and medicines from Iran into northern Iraq. One pharmacist had 90% of his drugs as illegal imports. The smugglers bazaars in the beleaguered are the response to a double set of sanctions -- one imposed by the international community on the whole of Iraq, the other by Baghdad on the northern rebels.
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