Increasing salaries of civil servants Improving conditions of civil service employees Protecting conditions of employment of public servants
Public sector employees are affected by structural adjustment policies, deregulation, privatization, contracting out of services and technological change. These trends affect employment levels, status, career development, mobility, remuneration, job content, skill requirements, and social security benefits.
In their efforts to improve the relevance of training, instructors are making increasing use of four promising approaches: 1. Action learning, pioneered by the National Coal Board in the UK and then used in many public and private organizations throughout the world. Managers work individually or in teams to solve a practical problem. They may spend time in a lecture room with a tutor or consultant, but there is no "trainer" who is teaching "trainees". 2. Integrated Training Programs, developed by the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank. This method combines short courses with project-related technical assistance. 3. Performance Improvement Planning (PIP), favoured by the ILO and the UN has been applied to public enterprises in a number of developing countries. Consultants and management specialists play only a catalytic role. Instead of passively attending lectures, participants collectively set targets and prepare plans for pursuing them. Follow-up action is specific and immediate' sometimes leading to dramatic improvements. 4. Modular training, also used by the ILO, has been effective in upgrading supervisory skills and knowledge quickly. The training programme consists of modules covering various aspects of management such as finance and cost control, maintenance, purchasing' and salary and wage administration.
Adequate civil service salaries are needed to attract and motivate qualified policymakers and administrators. The common practice of cutting salaries and narrowing pay differences while expanding total employment is bound to produce poor administration. Developing-country governments cannot afford to be employers of last resort for the entire labour force.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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