Securing local economic sustenance Structuring local economic control Promoting local economic independence Achieving local economic independence
Many rural projects which began their work using subsidies and free services found that villagers in the surrounding villages tended to wait for more handouts rather than acting on their own initiative. The shift to investing more in strengthening people's skills and local organizations rather than in providing subsidies or free services has not been easy. A wide variety of approaches is being used to initiate local enterprises. Sometimes there is an overlooked market for a currently unused skill. A third way to keep income in the area is to process a local agricultural product, locally.
Economic enterprises should not be confused with charity. Policies that involve subsidies must be employed carefully because they tend to create dependence. Income generation in village economy is complex and diverse. The landless need full time employment as an alternative to farm labour. Others need seasonal employment to make use of slack periods between sowing, weeding and harvesting. Still others need supplemental work that can be done by members of their family whenever they have the time.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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