Fixed interest rates on medium- and long-term loans are normally only available from official bilateral sources. Although the variability on their loans is generally much lower than on those from commercial sources, even multilateral institutions such as the World Bank find it necessary to lend at rates that vary over the loan's life. It may be possible for a debt manager to increase the proportion of fixed-term debt, for example by substituting official export credits for commercial borrowing. Furthermore, flexible maturity and shared equity loans are becoming available to developing countries and some middle-income countries are using interest rate swaps to exchange floating rate for fixed rate loans. However, borrowers may have to accept floating rate debt and consequently have to make assumptions about future interest rates when they plan future debt service payments. Since interest payments cannot generally be rescheduled, an important indicator of vulnerability to rising interest rates is the ratio of future interest payments to forecast export earnings. If a country has been able to reschedule its debts, the proportion of debt at floating rates can be much higher than that of non-rescheduling countries, as can the interest-to-exports ratio.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.