Increasing the income of those in poverty is the most efficacious for improving health because the poor are most likely to spend additional income in ways that enhance their health: improving their diet, obtaining safe water, and upgrading sanitation and housing. In the 1980s, even in countries in which average incomes fell, death rates of children under age 5 declined by almost 30%. But the child mortality rate fell more than twice as much in countries in which average incomes rose by more than 1% a year.
2. International intervention often undermines existing local structures, which weakens local capacity upon withdrawal.
3. The poor must be seen as potential partners in development rather than the passive and helpless recipients of welfare or charity. Their poverty often owes more to social systems and structures than a limitation of abilities. More than just a poverty of material goods, many also suffer from a lack of knowledge and training which prevents them from escaping from undignified living conditions. Continuing training and personal growth can enhance productivity as well as independence, motivation and contentment.