The initiative for innovation and technical learning should not only be guided by local institutions, the impetus should arise from demand for innovation from the productive sector. However, while private sector has a pivotal role and market incentives are vital, these are not sufficient to spur technological dynamism in very low-income nations or sectors. Relying on very rapid exposure to market-driven imperatives, in isolation, is merely another example of a "quick-fix" mentality.
A meaningful and dominant role for indigenous resources should not be confused with a doctrinaire espousal of "self-reliance". The tradeoffs between long-term local learning and short-term exigencies are a matter of judgement and vary according to practical and pragmatic circumstances; timing and tactics may be manipulated as long as the accumulation of domestic technology capacity building remains the ultimate objective.
Although the task of technology capacity-building in least developed countries will not be easy, it is not impossible; some combination of prescriptions incorporating patience, heavy reliance on indigenous resources, cumulative learning and endogenization of technology can begin to turn the tide in favour of technological dynamism in very low-income regions and nations of the world.