The impact of trade policies on agricultural commodity production and land use is particularly relevant for biodiversity conservation. Direct investment by producers should be a strong force in promoting sustainable development and biodiversity. Implementation of global, regional and bi-lateral trade agreements is certain to have effects on land use in many countries. The global process of trade liberalisation leads to important changes in existing subsidies and protective mechanisms. Together with changes in the pattern of trade, changes in global and regional patterns of agricultural production are likely to entail displacement or abandonment of some long-established local production systems, or lead to their intensification to maintain competitiveness, or to supply new markets.
Trade policies may result in: a) habitat degradation, loss and fragmentation; b) the overexploitation of species; c) the pollution of soil, air and water; d) the invasion of harmful alien organisms; and e) climatic change.