Trade policies and trade liberalization should be made more consistent with overall development objectives. In developing countries, ways and means need to be sought to ensure that trade makes a more decisive contribution to alleviating poverty. The role of trade for stimulating economic growth, the distribution of growth effects, and sectoral policies for agricultural and tourism development, and in the longer term for diversification into industry and advanced services, require further attention, including monitoring of the developmental impact of multilateral trade agreements.
Trade and environment policies should be mutually supportive in achieving sustainable development. The preamble to the agreement establishing the WTO commits the Organisation to achieving trade liberalisation that is consistent with environmental and developmental objectives: "expanding the production and trade in goods and services, while allowing for the optimal use of the world's resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and enhance the means for doing so in a manner consistent with their respective needs and concerns at different levels of economic development". The URA agreed to establish a Committee on Trade and Environment whose remit was to examine the effects of environment on trade (but not vice versa). Other Uruguay Round Agreements contain environmental provisions relating to technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, subsidies and countervailing duties, and trade-related intellectual property rights.
This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
2. Balanced trade policy must be developed, by ensuring environmental policy-makers and experts have a strong voice in the development of trade policy so that government trade agendas respect and promote the dual goals of economic development and environmental protection. At the international level, trade policy must be accompanied by cooperative inter-governmental efforts to enhance environmental and social safeguards.
3. The trends of globalization in the world economy, with the attendant environmental risks and opportunities, require international institutions to adopt new approaches and to engage the major actors involved in globalization in new ways. We should encourage a balanced and integrated approach to trade and environment policies in pursuit of sustainable development, in accordance with the decision of the Commission on Sustainable Development at its eighth session.