Materialists deny the reality of anything existing that does not have mass (matter) or that cannot be expressed or applied as an energy. Thus the exhibited energy of mind, presently only partly measured by brain activity, is believed, in the materialist faith, to result from complicated chemical, electro-chemical, or electro-magnetic processes. There is no soul beyond energy and matter. There cannot be any purpose that invisibly guides history, as history is only the result of interactions of masses of men and masses of material things. There cannot be free will, as human thoughts and wishes can only operate within the material conditions and limitations of life. Materialism vigorously opposes religious philosophies, institutions, and influences.
Recent influential materialist philosophies have included C Lloyd Morgan's theory of emergent evolution, Karl Marx's dialectical materialism, and J. B. Watson's behaviourism.
Materialism is an unscientific philosophy that cannot face the anomalies in modern cosmology, topology, high-energy physics, and psychology, for these show that an explicable universe is not possible from Euclidean, heratonian and other single-order, uni-dimensional perspectives. Dialectical materialism, with its a priori dogmatism, has held back scientific development in Russia, for example. The materialistic conception of the causes of mental illness leads to surgical destruction of parts of the brain as an attempted cure. Its solution to the ethical problem of evil is behaviourism, an Orwellian-kind of Big Brother State which conditions its citizens' acts and attitudes. In the final analysis, materialism is negated by the non-material existence of the argument with which it defends itself.