Five tribes of Amazonian Indians who share the same upland rainforest, have strict food preferences and food taboos which set each tribe apart from its neighbours -- the Parakana people eat roasted tapir, whilst their neighbours, the Arara people, say that tapir is disgusting and prefer monkey. The differences in preference cannot be explained by environmental differences, but seem to arise from the same kind of psychological need to distinguish ones' own group, a kind of "badge", that also lead each tribe to maintain other cultural differences, such as styles of body ornament. Such food taboos would also serve to limit the consumption of a single species throughout its territory, so removing the chance of extinction, and ensure that some preferred food was likely to be available throughout the tribe's range (because it was not eaten by others).
In the Jewish tradition, food is considered "kosher" or not kosher based on the guidelines laid out in the Torah. According to Leviticus 11:3, the criteria for four-footed animals are that they must have divided hooves, entirely cloven feet, and chew the cud. That means sheep, goats and cattle are among the kosher meats, but pigs, horses and camels are not. Fish are kosher as long as they have both fins and scales (Leviticus 11:0) No other kind of seafood is allowed. Most kinds of fowl commonly eaten in western cultures are kosher, including chicken, turkey, pheasant, duck, goose and quail. The biblical list of forbidden birds is essentially a list of scavengers and birds of prey. Eagles, hawks, vultures and the like are examples. Creatures which do not fit neatly into one of these categories are generally unkosher. Lizards, snakes, rodents, bats and most insects are not kosher. The only kosher insects are certain kinds of locust. Another important dietary rule in rabbinic Judaism is that meat and dairy products may not be eaten together. The Bible never explicitly gives such a rule, but it is derived from an obscure verse in Deuteronomy which says not to boil a kid in its mother's milk (Deuteronomy 14:21). Anything found already dead is unclean. During the week of Passover, there is another rule. During the Feast of Unleavened Bread, all traces of leaven must be removed from the home.
International airlines cater to dietary restriction with a number of different types of special meals. A typical list includes: gluten-free, diabetic, low fat, low cholesterol, no salt, low protein, semifluid, liquid, low calorie, high residue (fibre), vegetarian, lactovegetarian, strict vegetarian, fruit, kosher, no carbohydrates, no red meat, no pork/beef, chicken only, no dairy, asian, chinese, etc.