The deliberate erosion soil from the land. It is a process that is always occurring naturally but can be increased when necessary such as during the change-over period from a chemical based agriculture system to an organic production system or as part of a rehabilitation process after radioactive pollution. The rate of erosion can be increased by: (1) removing plant cover by burning pasture or felling trees, shelter belts or forests; (2) encouraging over-grazing by animals; (3) using exploitative (extractive) cultivation practices; (4) exposing soil surface to wind; (5) exposing soil surface to frost; (6) increasing rain and water runoff.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.