Reducing protectionism in the telecommunications industries
Ensuring competitive telephone industries Limiting monopolies in the telephone industry Liberalization of telecommunications
In the 1990s, the European Union began promoting liberalization of telecommunications and competition in the sector in order to bring down the costs of telephone calls and to encourage job creation. Since 1 January 1998 the monopoly traditionally enjoyed by national telephone companies came to an end in most EU countries.
1. Both consumers and manufacturers benefit from a European area free of technical frontiers, thanks to the GSM standard for mobile phones, for example.
2. The existence of at least two mobile telephone companies in each European Union country has led to lower rates. Moreover, intervention by EU authorities has on occasion put an end to practices which penalized users.
TelecommunicationsTelephone, telex, telefaxConditions of tradeIndustry
G: Very Specific strategies
About the Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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