Developing global seas observation system Monitoring open seas
Marine monitoring programs are usually long-term, data intensive programs that establishes points of reference for environmental conditions and then attempts to document and identify change in these conditions over time. Programs using macrobenthos and water quality measures are widely used in marine and estuarine settings. Assessment programs, smaller in scope and application, are generally more short-term and data-specific than typical monitoring programs. They are intended to measure specific parameters or conditions. Bioassay is a type of assessment program that uses live organisms to measure a variety of conditions or specific impacts.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.