In Indonesia tidal swamplands are a major resource. The Indonesian Government has initiated major land development schemes in tidal swamplands for transmigration. Transmigrants in four projects, the Purwosari project (established in 1937), the Tamban Luar project (established in 1972), and the Tamban Lupak project (established in 1977), have been interviewed. The Purosari project is a success because the transmigrants have planted coconuts using the Banjarese system (planting rice, followed by coconuts). The Tamban Luar project appears to be fairly successful, though rice yields are low their incomes are higher than when they were in Java. They have not adopted the Banjarese system, increasing weed problems, and have no income from coconuts. The Tamban Lupak project is experiencing pest and disease problems and it is not yet clear if it will be successful. The transmigrants here have also not adopted the Banjarese system. Comparing the Banjarese and Javanese spontaneous migrants and their system of agriculture with the official government transmigrants in the large land development systems, it seems clear the rice/coconut system provides higher returns than the only rice system of the transmigrants. Besides this, it is evident that Javanese will migrate without any assistance from the government if there are opportunities for jobs as hired labourers, access to forests land at a low cost, and good sea transport between Java and Kalimantan. Government should encourage spontaneous migration to the tidal swamp lands of Kalimantan while still continuing its massive transmigration schemes. They should further encourage the farmers to adopt the Bajarese system of rice and coconuts.
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