The Wuppertal Institute in Germany has found that houses can be retrofitted with new lighting systems and water saving equipment saving 50% of energy use. If heat-exchangers, insulation and passive solar power are added, energy savings can be raised to 75-80%.
Existing thermal power plants will have to be refurbished and the energy sector restructured. These activities should lead to substantial reductions in SO2 emissions. NOx emissions will also cut, but they may increase again, depending on the development of energy consumption and the demand for transport. International experience suggests that further reductions in air pollution emissions can be expected particularly through the repowering and retrofitting of large industrial plants and power generating installations, as well as the application of environmentally sound technology and energy-efficiency measures.