Establishing independent UN standby military force
In recent years, UN peacekeeping operations in Rwanda, Bosnia and Somalia have been neither effective nor successful. Reasons include among others: the operational structure of UN Peacekeeping was not effectively adapted to respective conflict zones; the UN lacked the necessary political and military backing from its member states to fulfill its mandate. Thus, the possibility of early and/or swift action has been undermined by the necessity to obtain, first, agreement in the Security Council, and then, a multi-national force financed by the voluntary contributions of the member states. In order to make UN peacekeeping operations more effective in the future, apart from reforms in the UN peacekeeping's operational process, the UN should be given a mandate to call on a trained standby force of its own, with a permanent military staff to run the operations.
During the Rwandan crises the UN appealed to 60 nations for peacekeepers and all those nations declined. The USA is reluctant to participate in UN actions unless it retains independent control of its forces.
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