Public employment in developing countries has grown rapidly in recent years in response to the demand for improved public services. But often there is overstaffing at lower levels, accompanied by shortages of professional and technical staff. These shortages are exacerbated by the "brain drain". Public service training needs to be made more relevant to the demands of the job. This requires forging closer links between trainers and trainees and between training and career development, as well as developing local training materials and programmes.
A strong civil service requires a personnel office that actively manages rather than passively administers personnel policies. Strengthening personnel management demands, above all, improving the management capabilities of personnel offices and giving them the status they need to carry out policy reforms. Other policy measures include establishing career schemes for occupational groups, instituting an effective system of performance evaluation, and avoiding big salary differentials between the private sector and the civil service.