Goat production in Thailand is primarily for meat. Approximately 88% of the total goat population is found in villages of the southern region where the Thai Muslim population is relatively high. Goats are traditionally integrated with agricultural systems such as fishing, rice growing, and rubber, oil palm, or fruit tree plantations and are raised by small-scale farmers who own about 1.4 ha/family. Although the flock size in southern Thailand is small (5 head/family), the contribution of goats to the farm cash income is relatively high especially in a rice-growing system (approx. 56% per year). More than 65% of goat owners employ a tethering system; a cut and carry system is practised only in the wet season. Cash inputs, concentrates, mineral supplements, and medical treatments are minimal. Village goats are mainly indigenous. Age at first kidding is 12.4 months. An average kidding rate for all age groups is 190% but the weaning rate is only 135%. A high mortality rate of 25-37% in young kids is mainly caused by accidents (such as dog bites) and diseases (such as scabby month or pneumonia). Under improved conditions, body weights of village goats increased by 21-55%, the kidding rate is somewhat lower (147%) and the weaning rate is higher (146%). However, the improved conditions have little effect on dressing percentage of the native goats (45.8 vs 45.0%).
Pastoralism is a way of life and an important part of the economic base for the people of the Peruvian Altiplano (southern highlands). These people fundamentally depend on livestock production, particularly of alpaca, cattle, and sheep. Alpaca are of especially great importance in southern Peru. they are sources of very high quality wool, meat, hides or fleece, fertilizer and fuel. Since ecological factors in the highlands constrain the production of agriculture staples, such staples are often bartered or bought from outside the community. Alpaca and their by-products are one of the main sources of cash and barter in the highland producers' economy. Alpaca more than any other product connects them with national and world markets.