Dependence of government income on products dangerous to health
In the case of developed-market economies, the three major categories, in terms of revenue collection, on which fiscal charges are levied on importation are mineral fuels (including petroleum), alcoholic beverages, and tobacco. For example revenues raised by developed market economy countries on tobacco alone were $22 billion in 1983. In the case of the UK, government revenue from alcohol consumption was Â£6,700 million in 1987-8. In Russia in 1992, the production of vodka (but no longer the sale) remains a state monopoly that continues to account for more than 10% of government revenue. In Japan, the Finance Ministry has a near monopoly in the production and sale of cigarettes through its company Japan Tobacco which in 1992 was generating $15 billion taxes per year, making it the largest corporate taxpayer in Japan.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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