Violation of freedom from being tried twice for the same charges Cumulation of convictions Multiple convictions for a single criminal act Multiple liability for an identical criminal act Overlapping criminal liability
In some jurisdictions, defendants may be convicted or punished for more than one crime arising out of a single act, where that act involves several distinctly defined crimes (eg murder and battery). A single act may be understood as resulting from a single or primary objective. Different acts constituting different crimes may often be committed closely together and for related reasons (eg burglary followed by larceny). When such crimes are treated as distinct, punishment is then imposed which is disproportionate to the defendants' actual blameworthiness.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.