A survey of 92 shopkeepers in London found a quarter had been victims of robbery or attempted robbery in the past year -- two having had four separate raids. In the Midlands of England, 17% of 70 shopkeepers had faced violence, usually involving knives, and a third had been vandalized. Nearly a quarter of the owners or staff running newsagents, off-licences, grocery stores and small supermarkets in both areas had suffered racial abuse. Four percent of the shopkeepers were assaulted and many suffered psychological trauma. The high turnover of shopkeepers made it difficult for the police to deliver crime prevention advice.