Unfair allocation of public contracts Abuse of government contract procedures Corruption in public sector contracting Bribery of officials for public contracts
Government contracts may be allocated to favourites or supporters by people in public office, or public office and public money may be used for private transactions or investments.
In many countries one of the principal areas of fraud and corrupt practice is associated with the allocation of public works contracts, whether for the personal enrichment of the official responsible or to augment the campaign funds of the governing political party, or both. In 1993 in Brazil it was revealed that the criterion for financing many public works had been the percentages that could be transferred to politicians, government officials and the engineering companies involved. Much of the corruption scandal in 1993 in Italy revolved around the public sector contracts, such as the receipt by deputies in Naples of millions of dollars in bribes in return for contracts to privatize the garbage collection system.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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