A senior official of the UK defence ministry was convicted in 1993 of taking Â£1.5 million in bribes from foreign ammunition suppliers in exchange for lucrative arms contracts in the early 1980s; this resulted in the loss of hundreds of jobs in the UK armaments industry. There had been 282 cases of fraud at defence establishments between 1982 and 1988, involving Â£2.9 million. The UK defence ministry reportedly had the reputation of being the most corrupt in Europe in the later 1980s and prior to subsequent change in practice. In the UK in 1993 a fraud ring was discovered to have operated within the Ministry of Defence and had allegedly made up to Â£14 million by ensuring that the Germans and the Danes obtained exhorbitant contracts to supply UK troops during the Gulf War. In 1993 in Germany prosecutors brought charges against a major aerospace contractor for bribery of officials.