Divorce may not be recognized under any circumstances (Roman Catholic doctrine) or, where the consent or the representation of both parties is necessary under the law, may not be granted if consent is not forthcoming from one party. The refusal of divorce may lead to a conjugal status outside the law (bigamous marriage, cohabitation, adultery), the children of which will be illegitimate; and both parents and children of such unions may forfeit legal rights.
Divorce is not recognized in Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain, where the Catholic religion is very strong. Judicial separation, which is allowed, does not enable the spouses to remarry. Individuals may refuse to consent to divorce for reasons of economic security and status of children (mainly in the case of women) or because of the cost (mainly in the case of men). Under Israeli law, divorce requires mutual consent of the husband and wife. A man separated from his wife can begin a second relationship and even commit bigamy legally but a woman is branded as an adulteress, can lose custody of her children and any new children born from that relationship are bastards who can only marry other bastards.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.