The European Commission proposed in 1999 that all cigarettes on sale in the European Union should carry stronger warnings, such as "Smoking can kill" or "Smoking kills", printed on the front side of the packet, in clearer and bigger type face than the present health warnings, such as "Smoking causes heart disease and strokes". The new warnings, printed on a white background and surrounded by a black border, would take up at least a quarter of the side - and even more of it in countries with two or three official languages. An additional warning, printed and laid out in the same way, would appear on the reverse side of the packet. In each EU country the competent authorities could choose from a list of eight warning messages, including "Smokers die younger", "Smoking causes cancer" and "Smoking is addictive". Additional health warnings include "Smoking when pregnant harms your baby" and "Protect children: don't make them breathe your smoke". The two warnings would be printed indelibly and so placed that they could not be covered or separated when the packet was opened. According to the proposal, manufacturers could no longer use, as they saw fit, terms such as "low tar", "light", "mild" and so on. Their use had been shown to mislead consumers into thinking that the products in question were less harmful to health. The proposed directive provides for special labelling in the case of chewing tobacco, which is allowed in only one EU country, Sweden.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
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