Cooperating on cost-effect analysis and environmental impact procedures
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (C-E analysis) endeavours to analyse the cost and the effects of programmes, projects or activities. At the design stage, the purpose of the analysis is normally to identify the lowest cost alternative that will achieve specified objectives. At the monitoring and evaluation stage, the purpose is to analyse what has been achieved at what cost. In both cases, the analysis will have to proceed in four or more steps, a) identifying and quantifying the outputs, b) costing the resources that have gone into producing these outputs, c) identifying indicators that will tell whether the stated objectives have been achieved and d) assessing to what extent it is the actual programme or project that will have, or has had, the desired or observed effect on the indicators. For the input-output comparison, the inputs are valued in monetary terms while the outputs are expressed in non-monetary terms, either physical or some other measurable entity.
This strategy features in the framework of Agenda 21 as formulated at UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), now coordinated by the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development and implemented through national and local authorities.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.