The effects of transboundary air pollution in the form of acid rain are can leach important plant nutrients from forest soils, and free toxic metals normally bound in soil materials that may be harmful to vegetation and animal life.
Seasonal observations for the effects of pollution in soil are taken in 59 regions of Ukraine from agricultural lands where chemicals and pesticides have been applied. The observations are intended to reveal longer-term changes in soil pollution levels caused by emissions from industrial facilities and from the use of agricultural chemicals and mineral fertilizers. Observations are carried out by means of a large-scale soil survey using sunken pits from which soil samples for laboratory analysis are taken. Depending on a category of complexity, 12-30 samples per 1000 hectares are taken. Analysis of cation-anion composition of water extract; physical-chemical, hydro-chemical parameters, fertility parameter are made.