The improved market access and increased market penetration resulting from the Uruguay Round, as well as other economic factors, have given rise to more intense demands from domestic producers in many countries for "trade remedies" in the form of contingency measures, including safeguards, anti-dumping duties and countervailing duties. There has been active use of anti-dumping laws by many countries, as well as of other trade measures in such areas as rules of origin. The most affected sectors include metals, plastics, textiles and clothing, footwear and headwear.
Market access conditions for agricultural and industrial products of export interest to LDCs should be improved on as broad and liberal a basis as possible and urgent consideration should be given to the proposal for a possible commitment by developed countries to grant duty-free and quota-free market access for essentially all exports originating in LDCs and other proposals to maximize market access for LDCs. Consideration should also be given to proposals for developing countries to contribute to improved market access for LDCs' exports. All countries that announced market access commitments at the High-level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for Least Developed Countries' Trade Development in October 1997 are invited to implement these commitments fully and expeditiously.