Where effective coordination cannot be assured, the need for it may be reduced by simplifying development programmes and shedding or postponing their least manageable components. Otherwise, collaboration may be improved by joint project planning and the negotiation of contracts between agencies, and by strengthening financial control so that funds are released only when agencies deliver on previous commitments.
If government feels a strong need to coordinate, it could well be a sign that other things in its structure and activities have gone wrong. Perhaps it is trying to do too much. Its decisions may have been inefficiently over-centralized. Departments may be jealously guarding their "territory". Or officials may not be responding to the requirements of policy and of their clients. Whatever the reason, governments have to decide whether elaborate coordination will improve their effectiveness or simply postpone other kinds of improvements in, for example, cabinet decisionmaking, policy analysis, and budgetary control.