Paragraph 10 of the 1998 Arhus Declaration stresses the importance of international cooperation in a non-confrontational and supportive fashion to strengthen the enforcement of national environmental law. It welcomes the establishment of informal, cooperative networks of environmental inspectors in the UN/ECE region, such as the European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law - Accession Countries (IMPEL-AC) and a network for environmental inspectors in the region of central and eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Many states have drawn up national environmental health action plans (NEHAPs) and are now preparing to implement them. Rigorous but proportionate enforcement of legislation and standards, whether by government or by an agency, is crucial to the successful implementation of a NEHAP and is an area where external support would often be helpful. A well designed enforcement system should not require great administrative effort. The use of self-policing enforcement measures may sometimes be more efficient and should be supported by the government. The specifying of ends rather than means, and the introduction of procedures to achieve those ends, should be stimulated in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity.