The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded five times to the United Nations and its organizations: 1954, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, for tis assistance to European refugees; 1965, UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) for its work in helping save the lives of the world's children; 1969, International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva, for its progress in establishing workers rights and protection; 1981, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, for its assistance to Asian refugees; and 1988, UN Peacekeeping Forces, for its peacekeeping operations. The prize was also awarded to: 1945, Cordel Hull, USA, ex-Secretary of State, for his leadership in establishing the UN; 1949, Lord John Boyd Orr, UK, first Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization; 1950, Ralph Bunche, US, UN Mediator in Palestine (1948), for his leadership in the armistice agreements signed in 1949 by Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria; 1957, Lester Pearson, Canada, ex-secretary of state, President 7th Session of the UN General Assembly, for a lifetime of work for peace and for leading UN efforts to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis; 1961, Dag Hammarskjold, Sweden, Secretary-General of the UN, for his work in helping settle the Congo crisis; and 1974, Dean MacBride, Ireland, UN Commissioner for Namibia.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.