Tactics include: resource analysis to assess present resources and stimulate new resource development; needs projection to predict demand on the basis of present trends, advances in technology, living standards and economic capability; demand development to create demands where they are needed, adapt products and enable credit so that authentic needs may be met; production planning to develop labour forces, skills and structures to produce durable goods that will meet the changing demands; and distribution preparation to facilitate goods exchanges by reduced tariffs and equipment, routes and transportation models. An example would be tactics to minimize the number of unsold new cars on the market.
Forecasting is used to determine future environmental conditions, in particular levels of pollution and resource extraction, based on current conditions and probable trends. Carrying capacity recognizes the maximum levels, or "critical loads," of resources that can be used and pollutants that can be assimilated by the environment. The object of environmental policy is to close the gap between the critical load for a pollutant or resource and the forecasted level. Backcasting is used to break this long-term goal into short-term, incremental targets.