Integrating environmental considerations into lending
The World Bank's Operational Directive on Environmental Assessment was approved in 1989, and expanded in 1991. It is the principal mechanism for taking account of the environmental effects of the Bank's project lending. All prospective Bank projects are screened for potential environmental effects and classified into categories. For instance, category A groups projects with potentially serious environmental damage and require complete Environmental assessments (EAs). Several A category projects have been modified as a result, including re-routing a channel to avoid disruptions to a lagoon, for the Lower Guayas flood control project in Ecuador.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.