Planning for contingencies Contingency planning Developing risk management
Even a well-programmed fiscal plan can become obsolete if there are unexpected shortfalls. Furthermore, planners and budgeters often lack the will or the ability to make difficult decisions, with the result that they over-programme and pay too little attention to priorities, resource constraints or phasing. In the subsequent squeeze, there is a tendency to cut or delay all spending rather than to define priorities, with the result that funding for many programmes falls below the minimum elective level. It is therefore essential to set priorities and develop contingency plans for unexpected shortfalls as part of any planning or budgeting exercise. Such planning should include decisions as to which projects should receive full funding under all circumstances - a "core" investment programme - together with a list of standby projects to be funded only when additional resources are available. This practice should replace the current procedure of partially funding most or even all projects.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.