This is a list of conspiracy theories that are notable. Many conspiracy theories relate to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots. Conspiracy theories usually deny consensus or cannot be proven using the historical or scientific method and are not to be confused with research concerning verified conspiracies such as Germany's pretense for invading Poland in World War II.
In principle, conspiracy theories are not false by default and their validity depends on evidence just as in any theory; although they are often discredited a priori due to the cumbersome and improbable nature of many of them.
Psychologists attribute finding a conspiracy where there is none to a mental illness called illusory pattern perception.
Hitler's persecution of the Jews, and his suppression of masonic and esoteric groups in Germany, has been traced to the influence of a conspiracy document called the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, which purports to be the programme for achieving power over the whole world, drawn up by a council of Jewish masonic elders in 1897, but is regarded as fraudulent. It has been so condemned in many countries throughout the century. But only in 1993 was it finally condemned in court in Russia, the land in which it was allegedly fabricated.