Inadequate standardization in marking navigable waters
The lack of a uniform system for the marking of navigable waters presents a serious threat to safe, international navigation. Some countries use the 'lateral system' which means that vessels proceeding in a channel in a given direction (such as from seaward to a port) are guided by seamarks of a specified type to starboard and of a different type to port, without reference to the points of the compass. Other countries use the 'cardinal system' which means that the appearance of sea marks is determined by their position - in terms of the nearest cardinal point (N, S, E or W) - with respect to the shoal they are marking.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.