Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors. In general, brain damage refers to significant, undiscriminating trauma-induced damage, while neurotoxicity typically refers to selective, chemically induced neuron damage.
A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) following physical trauma or head injury from an outside source, and the term acquired brain injury (ABI) is used in appropriate circles to differentiate brain injuries occurring after birth from injury, from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder. Primary and secondary brain injuries identify the processes involved, while focal and diffuse brain injury describe the severity and localization.
Due to more recent Medical, Rehabilitation and ongoing results 'neuroplasticity' within the mechanics of our brains lead to re-arrangement of the brain's workings. These often result in the synapses arranging alternate routes, to achieve previous habits. Neuroplasticity is the brain's ability to reorganise itself by forming new neural connections throughout life. Neuroplasticity allows the neurons (nerve cells) in the brain to compensate for injury and disease and to adjust their activities in response to new situations or to changes in their environment.