Ineffective governmental use of nongovernmental resources
Ineffective use of private sector resources by government Government opposition to private initiative Protection of public sector agencies from competition
Public regulatory policies have inhibited private providers of services. Although not explicitly part of the public budget, these policies can have large effects akin to taxation and spending. There is no uniquely appropriate balance between public and private sector activity. However, governments reduce their ability to broaden access to education and health, for example, when they discourage private initiatives. In the case of housing, in many cities private housing markets have been overly restricted by rent control, which has often produced results exactly opposite to those originally intended.
In many areas, exposing state-controlled enterprises to domestic and foreign competition would promote economic efficiency. Such enterprises are protected by budgetary subsidies, regulated domestic markets that keep out private competitors, tariffs and import quotas. Such protection inhibits the characteristic ability of the private sector to adapt to changing conditions of trade.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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