(b) Linguistic bias: Most efforts to produce an artificial language are based on western Indo-European languages and this is a barrier to speakers of other language groups. Many such languages exhibit linguistic parochialism.
(c) Identity: One of the chief functions of language is to express cultural identity. Universal languages do not articulate and respect differences in identity.
Many who are sympathetic to the idea of a universal language are discouraged by the fervour of advocates of particular candidates, whether English or Esperanto, and the social, cultural and political implications of any choice.