Burying sewerage under pavements in an era of sealed and heavily trafficked roadways is both extremely inconvenient for repairs and extremely expensive. A major portion of the cost of an underground sewerage system is not for transporting faecal matter but rather for supporting the weight and impact of heavy trucks that bear upon the system. It is little wonder that both the installation of new systems and the maintenance of old systems seems now beyond the financial resources of many municipalities.
One rational reason for burying sewerage systems underground, at least in the colder winter climates of the northern hemisphere, is to avoid having vast quantities of frozen sewage. Another has to with the professional competencies of the engineer, which in most countries inextricably combines the design skills for building roads, drainage and sewerage networks, usually within a narrow band of public land called a services ccorridor or easement.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.