Shallow environmental ethics conceives of moral imperatives as restricted to humans. It stresses individual options over social options. It supports a fragmented vision of reality, and a gap between values and practice. Ethical reflection related to nature is reduced, and the environmental is relegated to resources for human use. It holds that humans have the wisdom to manage nature.
From a nationwide USA survey (1991), 8 out of 10 Americans regard themselves as environmentalists and half of those said they are strong ones; but over half think the need to protect jobs in forest areas is more important than the need to protect the endangered spotted owl, an indicator species linked to healthy forests. 8 out of 10 say protecting the environment is generally more important than keeping prices down; but only 46% surveyed said they had actually decided to buy (in the past six months) any items based on the environmental reputation of a product or manufacturer. 53% said it will take fundamental changes in lifestyle rather than scientific advances to bring about dramatic changes in the environment but only 1% to 5% of residents who lived in communities with hazardous waste collection programmes in 1989 actually used them. In 1990, 78% believed that a major national effort was needed to improve the environment; but only 22% were actively working toward solutions.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.