Limited exposure to outside influences in rural villages
Insufficient extra-village experience
In contrast to the current, highly mobile life-style in urban areas, the tasks of rural residents may take them frequently to neighbouring villages but only rarely as far as the district market town a few miles away. Without telephone, postal service, newspaper, television, radio or regular bus service, their contact with the outside world is sporadic. In the past, communication with the outside world was a luxury at best, and at worst, a temptation which diverted attention from the arduous tasks of a subsistence life style. Outside exposure is, however, expanding and will continue to do so. The growing necessity for effective interchange with the world which is beginning to substantially shape their destinies means that villagers find themselves ill-equipped in language, clothing and practical experience to operate effectively in their expanding circle of relationships. They find it hard to imagine that they could make any significant contribution to the larger community, and tend to avoid increased outside exposure as it painfully reinforces their images of ineffectiveness, and overwhelms them with random data which they cannot digest.
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