Nationalistic images of citizenship Defensive nationalistic images Parochial external relations Differences in international political alliances International conflict of national interests
Physical isolation from other countries has been replaced by powerful military and economic controls to create national security. Studies in national character often are attempts to further this end. People are prevented from appropriating other cultures by national-oriented concepts of foreign threat and by dehumanized images of other nationalities. Popular images are often powerful enough to influence the behaviour of the majority of a nation's citizens towards other nations and cultures; and international encounter is limited to superficial efforts at diplomacy or tourism.
The failure of the European Community in Bosnia is in part due to deep seated national differences of economic interest and political alliance which condemned the attempt to forge a common policy from the beginning. Examples include Greece with its traditional ties with the Orthodox states in the Balkan countries and its vulnerability to any economic backlash, and Germany with its interest in early recognition of Croatia.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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