Conflict may arise over legal custody of children after desertion, separation or divorce, or where the parents were not married. Parents may quarrel bitterly over who is to have custody of the children and may enter into complicated legal proceedings to obtain right of custody. Having obtained it, one parent may effectively deny the other right of access and even abduct the child to this end, causing severe emotional stress to the child and the other parent. Since the grounds for divorce or separation affect the allocation of custody, parents may indulge in defamation of each other's character. In many cases there is legal discrimination against men. In the event of desertion or illegitimacy, the custody of the children weighs against the single parent who may have sole responsibility.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.