Officially in 1992, one third of all large and medium-sized state enterprises in China in 1992 were losing money and many economists placed the real figure at near two thirds. With the private and collective sectors flourishing, reform of the state sector is seen as the central task of the economic reform campaign. Bankruptcies are being increasingly used as a tool, and radical reformers want a lot more. 10 million of the 100 million employees of state enterprise are redundant and must be laid off. An example cited of sensitive handling of redundancy was to promote all the workforce a few days before the closure so that they would start a new job at a high grade.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.