Capitalism and socialism opposed each other while mutually influencing the way each developed. If socialism has failed it is with respect to its declared objectives, namely to catch up and overtake the advanced capitalist countries through a progressive economic system. One of the main reasons for the failure of socialism lay in the inability of socialist States to adapt to change and in its systemic obstacles to innovation. While the historical judgement is that capitalism won, the outcome of the twentieth century is in fact ambivalent: considerable progress has been accompanied by the continuous lagging behind of the poor countries vis-Ã -vis the richer ones.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.